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English. Lexicology And Lexicography

English lexicology and lexicography is that field in English language studies which examines English lexicon, English word-formation, the evolution of vocabulary and the composition of English dictionaries.

English. Lexicology and Lexicography

The term lexicology derives from the Greek word λεξικόν lexicon (neuter of λεξικός lexikos, "of or for words",[4] from λέξις lexis, "speech" or "word"[5]) and -λογία -logia, "the study of" (a suffix derived from λόγος logos, amongst others meaning "learning, reasoning, explanation, subject-matter").[6]Etymology as a science is actually a focus of lexicology. Since lexicology studies the meaning of words and their semantic relations, it often explores the history and development of a word. Etymologists analyze related languages using the comparative method, which is a set of techniques that allow linguists to recover the ancestral phonological, morphological, syntactic, etc., components of modern languages by comparing their cognate material.[7] This means many word roots from different branches of the Indo-European language family can be traced back to single words from the Proto-Indo-European language. The English language, for instance, contains more borrowed words (or loan words) in its vocabulary than native words.[8] Examples include parkour from French, karaoke from Japanese, coconut from Portuguese, mango from Hindi, etc. A lot of music terminology, like piano, solo, and opera, is borrowed from Italian. These words can be further classified according to the linguistic element that is borrowed: phonemes, morphemes, and semantics.[7]

General lexicology is the broad study of words regardless of a language's specific properties. It is concerned with linguistic features that are common among all languages, such as phonemes and morphemes. Special lexicology, on the other hand, looks at what a particular language contributes to its vocabulary, such as grammars.[2] Altogether lexicological studies can be approached two ways:

These complementary perspectives were proposed by Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure.[10] Lexicology can have both comparative and contrastive methodologies. Comparative lexicology searches for similar features that are shared among two or more languages. Contrastive lexicology identifies the linguistic characteristics which distinguish between related and unrelated languages.[9]

Another focus of lexicology is phraseology, which studies multi-word expressions, or idioms, like 'raining cats and dogs.' The meaning of the phrase as a whole has a different meaning than each word does on its own and is often unpredictable when considering its components individually. Phraseology examines how and why such meanings exist, and analyzes the laws that govern these word combinations.[12]

Janet DeCesaris (PhD, Spanish, Indiana University) teaches translation, lexicology, and lexicography at Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona, where she has worked for over twenty years and is currently the director of the Institute for Applied Linguistics. Her research [End Page 213] interests include lexical semantics, Catalan and Spanish lexicology, lexical equivalence across languages and, of course, dictionaries. She was on the executive board of the European Association for Lexicography (EURALEX) for twelve years and served as president from 2012 to 2014.

Stefan Dollinger (PhD, English Linguistics, Vienna University, 2006) is Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Gothenburg and Associate Professor of English at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. He specializes in historical linguistics, dialectology, sociolinguistics, and the lexicography and lexicology of varieties of English. Author of some 40+ papers (, his books include New-Dialect Formation in Canada (John Benjamins, 2008), The Written Questionnaire in Social Dialectology (John Benjamins, 2015) and, as editor-in-chief, the new edition of A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles (DCHP-2,, expected for 2017) and the digitized first edition (Avis et al. 1967), which is now available in open access (

2022. (together with A. Inoue, K. Nam, C.L. Zhao) Aspects of multiword expressions in Asian lexicography. In Jackson, H. (ed) The Bloomsbury Handbook of Lexicography. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp.309-324.

The following sites give you an idea of how the Web advances the fields of lexicology and lexicography, corpus linguistics, linguistic computing, learning and IT. Please note that this list is not exhaustive, and the websites listed here are meant to get you started on an exciting voyage of discovery! :)

ICHLL2022 is presented in coordination with the International Society for Historical Lexicography and Lexicology. ISHLL is a society of scholars working on the history of the dictionary, the making of historical dictionaries, and historical lexicology. ISHLL was established as a result of the first International Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology, which took place in Leicester in 2002. Subsequent conferences have been held at Gargnano del Garda, Italy (2004), Leiden, Netherlands (2006), Edmonton, Canada (2008), Oxford, UK (2010), Jena, Germany (2012), Gran Canaria, Spain (2014), Bloomington Indiana, USA (2016), Santa Margherita Ligure, Italy (2018), and Leeuwarden-Ljouwert, Netherlands (2019), Logroño, Spain (2021).

As with earlier conferences in this series we seek to bring together the expertise of scholars and professional dictionary makers. This time, to mark the 200th anniversary of Pierre Larousse and to celebrate other intellectuals who, like Samuel Johnson, Noah Webster, the Brothers Grimm, Niccolò Tommaseo, or Émile Littré, combined lexicography, philology, editing, publishing, writing poetry, essays or novels, and literary criticism in their prolific careers, we invite interested scholars to submit papers that explore the intersections of these fields of knowledge and labour.

The course consists of four parts: word formation (morphology), the history of English words, the meaning of words, and lexicography, i.e. the principles of dictionary creation. In the first part of the course we study English morphology, that is the structure of words. A word is typically made up of a root, to which may be added various affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to create new words. The focus of the second part of the course is the origin of words in English. English is an unusual language in the sense that it has a particularly large number of loanwords from other languages, which is due to historical events. We therefore look at where English words come from and how native English words and word elements have merged in the history of English. In the third part of the course we consider the meaning of words, and the meaning relations words enter into, for example synonymy, hyponymy, collocations. The part about lexicography will be spread out over the term. In connection with all the other topics, we look at dictionaries and the way that lexicographers have to take morphology, history and meaning into consideration when constructing dictionary entries. 041b061a72


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